Subjects Description This book combines stylistic analysis with corpus linguistics to present an innovative account of the phenomenon of speech, writing and thought presentation - commonly referred to as 'speech reporting' or 'discourse presentation'. This new account is based on an extensive analysis of a quarter-of-a-million word electronic collection of written narrative texts, including both fiction and non-fiction.
Using Assistive Technology to Support Writing Speech recognition, also referred to as speech-to-text or voice recognition, is technology that recognizes speech, allowing voice to serve as the "main interface between the human and the computer"i.
This Info Brief discusses how current speech recognition technology facilitates student learning, as well as how the technology can develop to advance learning in the future.
Although speech recognition has a potential benefit for students with physical disabilities and severe learning disabilities, the technology has been inconsistently implemented in the classroom over the years.
As the technology continues to improve, however, many of the issues are being addressed. If you haven't used speech recognition with your students lately, it may be time to take another look. Both Microsoft and Apple have built speech recognition capabilities into their operating systems, so you can easily try out these features with your students to find out whether speech recognition might be right for them.
When researching speech recognition tools for your child or your classroom, you may variously see technologies referred to as "speech-to-text," "voice recognition," or "speech recognition," sometimes all within the same product description.
Though the terms can be confusing, they all refer to technologies that can translate spoken language into digitized text or turn spoken commands into actions i. Voice recognition can refer to products that need to be trained to recognize a specific voice such as Dragon Naturally Speakingor those products used in applications like automated call centers that are capable of recognizing a limited vocabulary from any user.
Quite frequently, as in this article, the terms speech recognition and voice recognition are used interchangeably. Speech recognition technology in everyday life Speech recognition and speech-to-text programs have a number of applications for users with and without disabilities.
Speech-to-text has been used to help struggling writers boost their writing productionii and to provide alternate access to a computer for individuals with physical impairmentsiii.
Other applications include speech recognition for foreign language learning,iv voice activated products for the blind,v and many familiar mainstream technologies. New developments in the technology have driven innovation in many familiar customer service industry applications.
We have all used voice recognition technologies in our daily lives, many times without even thinking about it: Medical and law professionals use voice recognition every day to dictate notes and transcribe important information.
Newer uses of the technology include military applications, navigation systems, automotive speech recognition Ford SYNC'smart' homes designed with voice command devices, and video games such as EndWarwhich allows the player to give orders to their troops using only their voice.
Benefits of speech recognition for struggling writers Populations that may benefit from speech recognition technologies for learning include users with: Learning disabilities, including dyslexia and dysgraphia Repetitive strain injuries, such as carpal tunnel syndrome Poor or limited motor skills Vision impairments Physical disabilities Limited English Languagevii Benefits for students with disabilities may include improved access to the computer, increases in writing production, improvements in writing mechanics, increased independence, decreased anxiety around writing, and improvements in core reading and writing abilities.
By removing the physical barriers to writing and navigation of the computer, you can increase student access to technology and classroom activities. Writing production For students with learning disabilities, speech recognition technology can encourage writing that is more thoughtful and deliberateviii.
Studies with middle and high school students with learning disabilities have shown that input via speech is less challenging and that students frequently generate papers that are longer and better quality using speech recognition technologiesix.
Mechanics of writing Speech recognition technologies, in conjunction with word processors' abilities, can help reduce some of the difficulties that students may face with writing mechanics. Because students can often write more quickly with speech recognition tools, it eliminates potential obstacles, such as difficulty with handwriting or the need to transcribe thoughts while brainstorming.
Often, writers with learning disabilities will skip over words when they are unsure of the correct spelling, leading to pieces of writing that are short, missing key elements, or not reflective of the student's true abilitiesx. Speech recognition and word processors can potentially alleviate some of these concerns by allowing the student to get their thoughts out on paper without worrying about these or other technical writing components xi.
Increased independence For students with physical disabilities, poor motor skills or learning disabilities, a human transcriber is a low-tech solution for the classroom that allows the focus to shift from the physical act of writing to expressing thoughts and knowledge.
However, a transcriber makes the student dependent upon a teacher or aide for writing tasks. Students who use transcribers for writing often report "spending less time planning and organizing because they felt they were keeping the transcriber waiting, or felt embarrassment about making mistakes or asking for multiple readings of what was written.
If the speech-to-text program also includes text-to-speech features, the student may hear their text read aloud to them multiple times, and correct their errors more independently. Students can engage in multiple repetitions of an unfamiliar word without worrying about feeling embarrassedxv.
Some popular foreign language software programs now include speech recognition features for just this purpose. Improvements in core reading and writing abilities Research has shown that speech recognition tools can also serve a remedial function for students with learning disabilities in the areas of reading and writing.
In allowing students to see the words on screen as they dictate, students can gain insight into important elements of phonemic awareness, such as sound-symbol correspondence. As students speak and see their words appear on the screen, the speech-to-text tool directly demonstrates the relationship between how a word looks and soundsxvi.
This bimodal presentation of text can be especially helpful for students with learning disabilities, and is thought to be why speech recognition has been found effective in remediating reading and spelling deficits.
Another key benefit of speech recognition technologies is the error correction process. Because no speech recognition product is completely accurate, "it requires users to check the accuracy of each word uttered as sentences are being dictated.
When an error is made, the child must then find the correct word among a list of similar words and choose it"xvii. This process necessitates that the user examine the word list closely, compare words that look or sound alike, and make decisions about the best word for the specific situation.First, I will apply to the extract an updated model of SW&TP that was developed during the corpus project, starting from the account of speech and thought presentation in fiction given by Geoffrey Leech and Mick Short in Style in Fiction ().
Elena Semino (born 9 September ) is an Italian-born British linguist whose research involves stylistics and metaphor theory. Focusing on figurative language in a range of poetic and prose works, most recently she has worked on topics from the domains of .
You could be giving a ceremonial speech where, rather than preparing the speech, you have someone else write it and you speak it from the manuscript.
When you do have to use a manuscript, here are tips to help you avoid simply reading to your audience.
The paper looks into modes of speech and thought presentation, with a particular interest in Free Indirect Discourse. Taking a functional perspective on Free Indirect Discourse, the research studies its formal and stylistic features in E.
Hemingway’s short stories. Speech and writing summaries, like the presentation of hypothetical speech, do not constitute presentational report and so cannot be used as counter examples to the faithful - ness account.
The findings of the analysis of a range of specific phenomena, including hypothetical speech, writing and thought presentation, embedded speech, writing and thought presentation and ambiguities in speech, writing and thought presentation.