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Nanotechnology is the engineering of functional systems at the molecular scale.
This covers both current work and concepts that are more advanced. In its original sense, 'nanotechnology' refers to the projected ability to construct items from the bottom up, using techniques and tools being developed today to make complete, high performance products.
With 15, atoms, this parallel-shaft speed reducer gear is one of the largest nanomechanical devices ever modeled in atomic detail.
Eric Drexler right popularized the word 'nanotechnology' in the 's, he was talking about building machines on the scale of molecules, a few nanometers wide—motors, robot arms, and even whole computers, far smaller than a cell.
Gel electrophoresis. The explosion of molecular biology techniques that began in the mids (and continues today) has provided tools to examine the physical structure of DNA, its nucleotide sequence and how genes are read and regulated. AP essay questions AP Biology Essay Questions The following is a comprehensive list of essay questions that have been asked on past AP exams. Topics Click on the Links for Chapter Objectives, Terms, Outline Frameworks.
Drexler spent the next ten years describing and analyzing these incredible devices, and responding to accusations of science fiction. Meanwhile, mundane technology was developing the ability to build simple structures on a molecular scale.
As nanotechnology became an accepted concept, the meaning of the word shifted to encompass the simpler kinds of nanometer-scale technology. National Nanotechnology Initiative was created to fund this kind of nanotech: Much of the work being done today that carries the name 'nanotechnology' is not nanotechnology in the original meaning of the word.
Nanotechnology, in its traditional sense, means building things from the bottom up, with atomic precision. This theoretical capability was envisioned as early as by the renowned physicist Richard Feynman. I want to build a billion tiny factories, models of each other, which are manufacturing simultaneously.
The principles of physics, as far as I can see, do not speak against the possibility of maneuvering things atom by atom. It is not an attempt to violate any laws; it is something, in principle, that can be done; but in practice, it has not been done because we are too big.
Formulating a roadmap for development of this kind of nanotechnology is now an objective of a broadly based technology roadmap project led by Battelle the manager of several U.
National Laboratories and the Foresight Nanotech Institute. Shortly after this envisioned molecular machinery is created, it will result in a manufacturing revolutionprobably causing severe disruption.
It also has serious economic, social, environmental, and military implications. National Nanotechnology Initiative has described four generations of nanotechnology development see chart below. The current era, as Roco depicts it, is that of passive nanostructures, materials designed to perform one task.
The second phase, which we are just entering, introduces active nanostructures for multitasking; for example, actuators, drug delivery devices, and sensors.
The third generation is expected to begin emerging around and will feature nanosystems with thousands of interacting components. A few years after that, the first integrated nanosystems, functioning according to Roco much like a mammalian cell with hierarchical systems within systems, are expected to be developed.
Some experts may still insist that nanotechnology can refer to measurement or visualization at the scale of nanometers, but a consensus seems to be forming around the idea put forward by the NNI's Mike Roco that control and restructuring of matter at the nanoscale is a necessary element.
CRN's definition is a bit more precise than that, but as work progresses through the four generations of nanotechnology leading up to molecular nanosystems, which will include molecular manufacturingwe think it will become increasingly obvious that "engineering of functional systems at the molecular scale" is what nanotech is really all about.
Conflicting Definitions Unfortunately, conflicting definitions of nanotechnology and blurry distinctions between significantly different fields have complicated the effort to understand the differences and develop sensible, effective policy.
The risks of today's nanoscale technologies nanoparticle toxicity, etc. It is a mistake to put them together in one basket for policy consideration—each is important to address, but they offer different problems and will require different solutions.
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As used today, the term nanotechnology usually refers to a broad collection of mostly disconnected fields. Essentially, anything sufficiently small and interesting can be called nanotechnology. Much of it is harmless. For the rest, much of the harm is of familiar and limited quality.
But as we will see, molecular manufacturing will bring unfamiliar risks and new classes of problems.
General-Purpose Technology Nanotechnology is sometimes referred to as a general-purpose technology. That's because in its advanced form it will have significant impact on almost all industries and all areas of society. It will offer better built, longer lasting, cleaner, safer, and smarter products for the home, for communications, for medicine, for transportation, for agriculture, and for industry in general.
Imagine a medical device that travels through the human body to seek out and destroy small clusters of cancerous cells before they can spread. Or a box no larger than a sugar cube that contains the entire contents of the Library of Congress. Or materials much lighter than steel that possess ten times as much strength.
National Science Foundation Dual-Use Technology Like electricity or computers before it, nanotech will offer greatly improved efficiency in almost every facet of life.
But as a general-purpose technology, it will be dual-use, meaning it will have many commercial uses and it also will have many military uses—making far more powerful weapons and tools of surveillance.Biology IB HL 1 Previous IB Exam Essay Questions: Unit 3 Use these model essay question responses to prepare for essay questions on your in class tests, as well as the IB Examination, Paper 2.
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