Macdonaldand he outlined what would be Canada's economic program for decades. This would be the National Policy a system of protective tariffs that would encourage the development of Canadian manufacturing. This would be combined with great railway building projects such as the Canadian Pacific Railway to link the east with the west and the Intercolonial Railway to link central Canada with Atlantic Canada. Canada had traditionally been committed to free trade and had only had one experiment with a protective tariff with the Cayley-Galt Tariff of
Those five are the duties of universal obligation. Knowledge, magnanimity, and energy, these three, are the virtues universally binding. And the means by which they carry the duties into practice is singleness. Some are born with the knowledge of those duties; some know them by study; and some acquire the knowledge after a painful feeling of their ignorance.
But the knowledge being possessed, it comes to the same thing. Some practice them with a natural ease; some from a desire for their advantages; and some by strenuous effort.
But the achievement being made, it comes to the same thing.
Confucius If a Western person is not aware of the very different relational presumptions built into Confucian ideas of reciprocal duty, he or she is likely to presume that the independent pursuit of needs and wants is central to involvement in such relationships.
Robert Westwood does this when he sums up the Confucian position from a Western perspective. He assumes that all individuals are 'free actors' who 'lose freedom' when they are required to accept super-ordinate or subordinate hierarchical status.
It is this that allows him to speak about relative 'power' in hierarchical, interdependent relationships: Challenges to authority and the 'natural' order are not countenanced.
This is encapsulated in the Confucian precepts of the so-called 'Five Cardinal Relationships' or wu lun, which delineate a hierarchical power structure over key societal relationships. The wu lun are dyadic sets of unequal, mostly hierarchical relationships between emperor - minister, father - son, husband - wife, older brother - younger brother, friend - friend.
Although the power structure is differentiated and unequal except for the lattermutual obligations and reciprocities are inherent in the relationships. The person in the dominant position expects and receives obedience, deference and compliance, but in return should respect the dignity of the lower party and provide appropriate care and concern.
Chinese often view themselves interdependent with the surrounding social context, and it is the 'self in relation to other' that becomes the focal individual experience. This view of an interdependent self is in sharp contrast to the Western view of an independent self.
The latter sees each human being as an independent, self-contained, autonomous entity who a comprises a unique configuration of internal attributes e. This divergent view of self has implications for a variety of basic psychological processes e.
It is very easy for a researcher or commentator to apply his or her own understandings of the nature of relationships to those observed in other communities.
Westwood does this when he assumes that hierarchical relationships must involve dominance and subservience, relative power and powerlessness. These are features of relationships between individuals who define themselves as 'free actors'.
They see relationships of dependence in terms of costs and benefits and degrees of loss of independence The independent self is quintessentially Western.This book seeks to identify the forces which explain how and why some parts of the world have grown rich and others have lagged behind.
Encompassing years of history, Part 1begins with the Roman Empire and explores the key factors that have influenced economic development in Africa, Asia, the Americas and Europe. Islamic Gunpowder Empires: Ottomans, Safavids, and Mughals (Essays in World History) 1st Edition.
Pre-Social Security Period. Traditional Sources of Economic Security.
All peoples throughout all of human history have faced the uncertainties brought on by . 3 thoughts on “ A short history of economic anthropology ” Pingback: french history W.
Peden October 27, Polyani’s views on the power of “social interests” are echoed in the work of the economist-turned-philosopher Friedrich Hayek, who argued that modern societies are driven by a basic sympathetic ethic, which evolves out of the family unit, .
Islamic Gunpowder Empires provides readers with a history of Islamic civilization in the early modern world through a comparative examination of Islam's three greatest empires: the Ottomans (centered in what is now Turkey), the Safavids (in modern Iran), and the Mughals (ruling the Indian subcontinent).
Author Douglas Streusand explains the origins of the three empires; compares the. Re-imagining Democracy in the Age of Revolutions charts a transformation in the way people thought about democracy in the North Atlantic region in the years between the American Revolution and the revolutions of In the mid-eighteenth century, 'democracy' was a word known only to the literate.
It was associated primarily with the ancient world .