After Tan died, Broca performed an autopsy of his brain and found that there was an area of damage in the left hemisphere.
Misarticulations or distortions of consonants and vowels, namely phonetic dissolution, are common. Individuals with expressive aphasia may only produce single words, or words in groups of two or three.
Dad and Peter H This is exemplified by the difficulty to understand phrases or sentences with unusual structure. Although listening and reading are generally intact, subtle deficits in both reading and listening comprehension are almost always present during assessment of aphasia.
Severity of expressive aphasia varies among patients. Some people may only have mild deficits and detecting problems with their language may be difficult. In the most extreme cases, patients may be able to produce only a single word.
Even in such cases, over-learned and rote-learned speech patterns may be retained  - for instance, some patients can count from one to ten, but cannot produce the same numbers in novel conversation. Manual language and aphasia[ edit ] In deaf patients who use manual language such as American Sign Languagedamage to the left hemisphere of the brain leads to disruptions in their signing ability.
Agrammatism, or the lack of grammatical morphemes in sentence production, has also been observed in lifelong users of American Sign Language who have left hemisphere damage.
The lack of syntactic accuracy shows that the errors in signing are not due to damage to the motor cortex, but rather are a manifestation of the damage to the language-producing area of the brain.
Similar symptoms have been seen in a patient with left hemisphere damage whose first language was British Sign Language further showing that damage to the left hemisphere primarily hinders linguistic ability, not motor ability.
In contrast, patients who have damage to non-linguistic areas on the left hemisphere have been shown to be fluent in signing, but are unable to comprehend written language. This agrammatism overlaps with receptive aphasia, but can be seen in patients who have expressive aphasia without being diagnosed as having receptive aphasia.
The most well-noted of these are object-relative clauses, object Wh- questions, and topicalized structures placing the topic at the beginning of the sentence. Causes[ edit ] The most common cause of expressive aphasia is stroke. A stroke is caused by hypoperfusion lack of oxygen to an area of the brain, which is commonly caused by thrombosis or embolism.
However, cases of expressive aphasia have been seen in patients with strokes in other areas of the brain. In the past, it has been believed that the area for language production differs between left and right-handed individuals.
More recent studies have shown that even left-handed individuals typically have language functions only in the left hemisphere. However, left-handed individuals are more likely to have a dominance of language in the right hemisphere.
For further diagnostic testing, the physician will refer the patient to a speech-language pathologist, who will complete a comprehensive evaluation. The Western Aphasia Battery WAB classifies individuals based on their scores on the subtests; spontaneous speech, auditory comprehension, repetition, and naming.
Quality of life measurement is also an important assessment tool. Observations of the patient may also be beneficial to determine where to begin treatment.
The current behaviors and interactions of the patient will provide the therapist with more insight about the client and his or her individual needs. Treatment[ edit ] Currently, there is no standard treatment for expressive aphasia.
Patients go through a period of spontaneous recovery following brain injury in which they regain a great deal of language function. Among other exercises, patients practice the repetition of words and phrases. Mechanisms are also taught in traditional treatment to compensate for lost language function such as drawing and using phrases that are easier to pronounce.
Although less common, group treatment has been shown to have advantageous outcomes.SELECT YOUR LANGUAGE. Español (Spanish) Write. A stroke that affects the left side of the brain may lead to aphasia, a language impairment that makes it difficult to use language in those ways.
Aphasia can have tragic consequences. People with aphasia: 6 Types of Aphasia ;. Primary progressive aphasia is a rare disorder where people slowly lose their ability to talk, read, write, and comprehend what they hear in conversation over a period of time.
With a stroke. Learn more about Expressive aphasia. Managing Speech and Language Deficits after Stroke or following written recipes in the kitchen.
Any activity involving numbers (e.g., check writing and reconciliation of a bank account) may be a challenge for the person with Broca's aphasia. Further, the writing faculty is independent of hand. Individuals with Broca’s aphasia have trouble speaking fluently but their comprehension can be relatively preserved.
This type of aphasia is also known as non-fluent or expressive aphasia. Patients have difficulty producing grammatical sentences and their speech is . Broca's aphasia is described as motor aphasia or non-fluent aphasia because it is an impairment of speech rhythm, usually with normal comprehension.
Read and write; Treatment. In a group setting, people with aphasia can try out their communication skills in a safe environment. Participants can practice initiating conversations, speaking in turn, clarifying misunderstandings and fixing conversations that have completely broken down.
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